Court of Appeals Division II                                                                                                
                               State of Washington                                                                                                    
                            Opinion Information Sheet                                                                                                 
Docket Number:       21969-7-II                                                                                                                       
Title of Case:       State of Washington, Respondent                                                                                                  
                     Lisa Ann Farr-Lenzini, Appellant                                                                                                 
File Date:           01/08/99                                                                                                                         
                                SOURCE OF APPEAL                                                                                                      
Appeal from Superior Court of Clark County                                                                                                            
Docket No:      96-1-01215-7                                                                                                                          
Judgment or order under review                                                                                                                        
Date filed:     05/13/97                                                                                                                              
Judge signing:  Hon. Edwin L. Poyfair                                                                                                                 
Authored by Karen G. Seinfeld                                                                                                                         
Concurring: J. Dean Morgan                                                                                                                            
            Elaine M. Houghton                                                                                                                        
                                COUNSEL OF RECORD                                                                                                     
Counsel for Appellant(s)                                                                                                                              
            Mark W. Muenster                                                                                                                          
            Attorney At Law                                                                                                                           
            1010 Esther St                                                                                                                            
            Vancouver, WA  98660                                                                                                                      
Counsel for Respondent(s)                                                                                                                             
            Kathleen A. Rukliss                                                                                                                       
            Clark Co. Deputy Pros. Atty.                                                                                                              
            Clark Co Pros Office                                                                                                                      
            PO Box 5000                                                                                                                               
            Vancouver, WA  98668                                                                                                                      
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON                                                                                                    
DIVISION  II                                                                                                                                          
STATE OF WASHINGTON,             No. 21969-7-II                                                                                                       
LISA ANN FARR-LENZINI,           PUBLISHED OPINION                                                                                                    
                    Appellant.   Filed:                                                                                                               
Seinfeld, J. - Lisa Ann Farr-Lenzini appeals her conviction for attempting                                                                            
to elude a police officer, RCW 46.61.024.  Because the officer's opinion                                                                              
testimony as to Farr-Lenzini's state of mind constituted harmful error, we                                                                            
reverse.  We further hold that the traffic infraction of negligent driving                                                                            
in the second degree, RCW 46.61.525, is not a lesser included offense of                                                                              
reckless driving, RCW 46.61.500.                                                                                                                      


Early on a September Sunday morning, a Washington State Patrol trooper and                                                                            
his trooper cadet passenger observed Farr-Lenzini drive her Ford Probe                                                                                
through the intersection of SR 503 and 199th Street in rural Clark County                                                                             
at what the trooper believed to be an excessive speed.  The trooper                                                                                   
followed in his marked patrol car, trying to overtake her.  At that point,                                                                            
the trooper was about one thousand feet behind the Probe.                                                                                             
The weather conditions were clear and dry except for a patch of fog that                                                                              
both vehicles went through.  When the trooper emerged from the fog, he saw                                                                            
that the Probe had passed another vehicle.  He estimated that it was                                                                                  
traveling over eighty miles per hour in a fifty mile per hour zone at that                                                                            
time.  The trooper then activated his siren and overhead lights and                                                                                   
continued his pursuit.                                                                                                                                

At one point, as the Probe slowed for a left turn onto 72nd Avenue, the                                                                               
trooper came within three or four hundred feet of it, but the gap widened                                                                             
as the Probe accelerated to over eighty miles per hour in a fifty mile                                                                                
zone.  As the Probe sped along, the trooper saw three vehicles in the                                                                                 
oncoming lane pull over.  According to the trooper, before the Probe turned                                                                           
right onto 179th Street, its turn signal flashed once and it braked "really                                                                           
hard."  At that point, the trooper was approximately five hundred feet                                                                                
behind the Probe and trying hard to maintain the distance.  Also at that                                                                              
point, according to the trooper, the Probe's driver was braking and                                                                                   
accelerating "real hard" and appeared to be driving more "erratically."  At                                                                           
one point on 179th Street, the trooper's speedometer exceeded one hundred                                                                             
miles per hour and he was still five hundred feet behind the Probe.                                                                                   
At the next intersection, 179th St. and 50th Avenue, the trooper saw the                                                                              
Probe's driver "hit the brakes real hard" before going through a stop sign                                                                            
and on to 50th Avenue.  The trooper cadet estimated the Probe was going                                                                               
between thirty and forty miles per hour as it rounded the corner.   And the                                                                           
trooper said that the Probe cut across oncoming lanes to get around the                                                                               
corner, and its rear-end "almost, sort of, slides to the right a little                                                                               
bit" as it rounded the corner.  But when the trooper later checked the                                                                                
intersection for skid marks, he found none.                                                                                                           

Farr-Lenzini testified at trial that she had tried to stop at the 179th and                                                                           
50th intersection but "I must have been going faster that {sic} I realized                                                                            
and my brakes were slightly squishy, and I looked in both directions and in                                                                           
front of me and I didn't see anybody.1  So I just chose to go ahead and                                                                               
make my turn."                                                                                                                                        

As Farr-Lenzini braked for the intersection, the trooper's vehicle came                                                                               
within several hundred feet of her, but the trooper lost ground again as                                                                              
the Probe accelerated to an estimated seventy miles plus per hour in a                                                                                
forty mile zone.

At the next intersection, 50th Avenue and Salmon Creek Avenue, Farr-Lenzini                                                                           
stopped at the stop sign, saw the trooper coming up behind her, and pulled                                                                            
into a parking lot.  She testified that this was the first time she saw the                                                                           
patrol car and that she had not heard the siren until then.                                                                                           
The trooper had traveled approximately four and a half miles since                                                                                    
activating his lights and sirens and the pursuit had lasted for                                                                                       
approximately three and a half to four minutes.  During this time, the                                                                                
trooper saw no pedestrians2 or animals.  Nor did he see any vehicles                                                                                  
exiting driveways. 

When the trooper stopped Farr-Lenzini, she was not intoxicated, she had a                                                                             
valid driver's license, her car contained no contraband, and the Probe was                                                                            
registered in her name.  She was dressed in running clothes and said that                                                                             
she was on her way to meet a friend with whom she planned to go to Portland                                                                           
for a charity run.

The State charged Farr-Lenzini with one count of attempting to elude, RCW                                                                             
46.61.024, or in the alternative, the lesser included offense of reckless                                                                             
driving, RCW 46.61.500.

At trial, over defense counsel's continuing objection, the State questioned                                                                           
the trooper as follows:

Q:  Just based on your training and experience, do you have an opinion as                                                                             
to what the defendant's driving pattern exhibited to you?                                                                                             
A:  It exhibited to me that the person driving that vehicle was attempting                                                                            
to get away from me and knew I was back there and refusing to stop.                                                                                   
An acoustical engineer testified as an expert on Farr-Lenzini's behalf.                                                                               
The engineer had tested the acoustical characteristics of the Probe.  Based                                                                           
upon information he obtained from the siren manufacturer and the Washington                                                                           
State Patrol, along with other technical data, environmental factors, and                                                                             
the distances reported by the trooper, the engineer concluded that it was                                                                             
very probable that Farr-Lenzini could not hear the police sirens inside the                                                                           

Farr-Lenzini admitted to going through the stop sign and speeding, but said                                                                           
she was largely unaware of her exact speed and did not think she went as                                                                              
fast as one hundred miles per hour.  Farr-Lenzini said, "I was driving for                                                                            
the road conditions." 

Farr-Lenzini took exception to jury instruction 11, which stated in part: 

	A person who drives in excess of the maximum lawful speed at the point of                                                                             
	operation may be inferred to have driven in a reckless manner.                                                                                        
	This inference is not binding upon you, and it is for you to determine what                                                                           
	weight, if any, such inference is to be given.                                                                                                        
The trial court rejected Farr-Lenzini's proposed jury instruction on the                                                                              
lesser included offense of negligent driving in the second degree,                                                                                    
reasoning that a traffic infraction was not a lesser included offense to a                                                                            
criminal charge. 

In closing argument, defense counsel asked the jury to consider whether                                                                               
Farr-Lenzini is the type of "person who's going to go out and commit this                                                                             
crime{.}"  In response, the State argued:  "What is a profile of somebody                                                                             
eluding?  You know, look at Ted Bundy, common experience.  Look at things                                                                             
people like that - good looking guy, goes to UPS Law School; come to find                                                                             
out, he's a mass murderer."  The trial court overruled Farr-Lenzini's                                                                                 
prejudice objection. 

The jury convicted Farr-Lenzini of attempting to elude and the trial court                                                                            
denied her motion for new trial.  On appeal, she challenges: (1) the                                                                                  
admission of the trooper's opinion testimony as to her state of mind; (2)                                                                             
the denial of her proposed negligent driving instruction; (3) the court's                                                                             
inference instruction; (4) the prosecutor's closing argument; and (5) the                                                                             
sufficiency of the evidence.  She also argues that cumulative errors denied                                                                           
her a fair trial. 

I.  Opinion Testimony 

Farr-Lenzini argues that the trooper's opinion testimony as to her state of                                                                           
mind violated her constitutional right to a jury trial under the federal                                                                              
and state constitutions.  Because it is the jury's responsibility to                                                                                  
determine the defendant's guilt or innocence, no witness, lay or expert,                                                                              
may opine as to the defendant's guilt, whether by direct statement or by                                                                              
inference.  State v. Black, 109 Wn.2d 336, 348, 745 P.2d 12 (1987); State                                                                             
v. Garrison, 71 Wn.2d 312, 315, 427 P.2d 1012 (1967).  Such an opinion                                                                                
would invade the jury's independent determination of the facts and violate                                                                            
the defendant's constitutional right.  State v. Carlin, 40 Wn. App. 698,                                                                              
701, 700 P.2d 323 (1985).  Further, the closer the tie between an opinion                                                                             
and the ultimate issue of fact, the stronger the supporting factual basis                                                                             
must be.  1 John William Strong et al., McCormack on Evidence sec. 12 (4th                                                                            
ed. 1992). 

The State argues that the court properly admitted the trooper's opinion                                                                               
under ER 704.  ER 704 allows for the admission of an opinion or inference                                                                             
on an ultimate issue that the trier of fact must decide provided that the                                                                             
opinion or inference is otherwise admissible.  Seattle v. Heatley, 70 Wn.                                                                             
App. 573, 578-79, 854 P.2d 658 (1993).  To be otherwise admissible, opinion                                                                           
evidence must also satisfy ER 403, ER 701, and ER 702.  Heatley, 70 Wn.                                                                               
App. at 579.  Here, we find the trooper's opinion was inadmissible under ER                                                                           
702 and ER 701. 

The court did not state whether it was admitting the trooper's challenged                                                                             
opinion as expert or as lay testimony.  "Expert testimony on scientific,                                                                              
technical or specialized knowledge is admissible under ER 702 if it will                                                                              
assist the tier of fact understand the evidence or a fact in issue."3
Hiner v. Bridgestone/Firestone, Inc., 91 Wn. App. 722, 734-35, 959 P.2d                                                                               
1158 (1998) (citing Queen City Farms, Inc. v. Central Nat'l Ins. Co., 126                                                                             
Wn.2d 50, 102, 882 P.2d 703, 891 P.2d 718 (1994)).  ER 702 requires us to                                                                             
make two inquiries:  "(i) does the proffered witness qualify as an expert;                                                                            
and (ii) would the proposed testimony be helpful to the trier of fact."                                                                               
State v. Greene, 92 Wn. App. 80, 960 P.2d 980, 988 (1998); State v. Janes,                                                                            
121 Wn.2d 220, 235-36, 850 P.2d 495, 22 A.L.R.5th 921 (1993). 

     "Practical experience is sufficient to qualify a witness as an                                                                                   
expert."  State v. Ortiz, 119 Wn.2d 294, 310, 831 P.2d 1060 (1992).  The                                                                              
trooper here had nearly twenty years experience, was a vehicle instructor                                                                             
trained in accident investigation, and had participated in fifty to eighty                                                                            
arrests for attempting to elude.  Thus, he certainly qualified as an expert                                                                           
for purposes of police procedures, speed, vehicle dynamics, and accident                                                                              

But the expert testimony of an otherwise qualified witness is not                                                                                     
admissible if the issue at hand lies outside the witness' area of                                                                                     
expertise.  Queen City Farms, 126 Wn.2d at 103-04.  Thus, in Queen City,                                                                              
the Supreme Court found the witness' testimony to be "conjecture and                                                                                  
speculation."  Queen City Farms, 126 Wn.2d at 104. 

The record here does not indicate that the trooper was qualified to testify                                                                           
as an expert on the driver's state of mind.  There is no evidence that he                                                                             
had the specialized training or experience necessary to recognize the                                                                                 
difference between a distracted speeding driver and an eluding driver.                                                                                
Assuming there is a profile of an eluding driver and that it would be                                                                                 
admissible, it was not mentioned here. Consequently, we find there was an                                                                             
insufficient foundation to qualify the trooper as an expert for purposes of                                                                           
expressing an opinion as to Farr-Lenzini's state of mind.  Queen City                                                                                 
Farms, 126 Wn.2d at 104.  An opinion that lacks a proper foundation is not                                                                            
admissible under ER 702.  Heatley, 70 Wn. App. at 579. 

Nor did the trooper's opinion satisfy the other requirement of ER 702, that                                                                           
it be helpful to the jury.  See State v. Ellis, 136 Wn.2d 498, 533, 963                                                                               
P.2d 843 (1998) (Talmadge J. dissenting).  "Generally, expert evidence is                                                                             
helpful and appropriate when the testimony concerns matters beyond the                                                                                
common knowledge of the average layperson, and does not mislead the jury to                                                                           
the prejudice of the opposing party."  State v. Jones, 59 Wn. App. 744,                                                                               
750, 801 P.2d 263 (1990) (citing State v. Cunningham, 23 Wn. App. 826, 854,                                                                           
598 P.2d 756 (1979), rev'd on other grounds, 93 Wn.2d 823, 613 P.2d 1139                                                                              
(1980)).  Thus, opinion testimony explaining complex or arcane medical,                                                                               
psychological or technical evidence may help the jury.  See, e.g., State v.                                                                           
Avendano-Lopez, 79 Wn. App. 706, 711, 904 P.2d 324 (1995); Jones, 59 Wn.                                                                              
App. at 750-51; State v. Madison, 53 Wn. App. 754, 764-65, 770 P.2d 662                                                                               
(1989).  But a lay jury, relying upon its common experience and without the                                                                           
aid of an expert, is capable of deciding whether a driver was attempting to                                                                           
elude.  See, e.g., Hiner, 91 Wn. App. at 735-36.  Thus, the trooper's                                                                                 
testimony was not properly admissible under ER 702.

Further, the trooper's opinion was not admissible lay testimony under ER                                                                              
701.  A lay witness may give only "those opinions or inferences which are                                                                             
(a) rationally based on the perception of the witness and (b) helpful to a                                                                            
clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a                                                                               
fact in issue."  ER 701; State v. Lewellyn, 78 Wn. App. 788, 794, 895 P.2d                                                                            
418 (1995); State v. Kinard, 39 Wn. App. 871, 874, 696 P.2d 603 (1985).                                                                               
Courts have upheld the admission of the following lay opinions:  speed of a                                                                           
vehicle, Kinard, 39 Wn. App. at 874; degree of sobriety in a driving while                                                                            
intoxicated case, Lewellyn, 78 Wn. App. at 794-95; the value of one's own                                                                             
property, Kinard, 39 Wn. App. at 874; and the identification of a person                                                                              
from a videotape, State v. Hardy, 76 Wn. App. 188, 190, 884 P.2d 8 (1994),                                                                            
aff'd, 129 Wn.2d 211, 916 P.2d 384 (1996); Kinard, 39 Wn. App. at 874.                                                                                
But courts have held the admission of other lay opinions to be improper,                                                                              
such as a person's mental capacity to enter into a lease, Carr v. Deking,                                                                             
52 Wn. App. 880, 885-86, 765 P.2d 40 (1988); and a jail nurse's opinion as                                                                            
to a defendant's "diminished capacity" where the nurse lacked personal                                                                                
knowledge as to whether the defendant was on drugs at the time of the                                                                                 
crime, State v. Thamert, 45 Wn. App. 143, 148-49, 723 P.2d 1204 (1986).                                                                               
The above authorities suggest that when analyzing the admissibility of lay                                                                            
opinion testimony, we first determine whether the opinion relates to a core                                                                           
element or to a peripheral issue.  Where the opinion relates to a core                                                                                
element that the State must prove, there must be a substantial factual                                                                                
basis supporting the opinion.  Courts also consider whether there is a                                                                                
rational alternative answer to the question addressed by the witness's                                                                                
opinion.  In that circumstance, a lay opinion poses an even greater                                                                                   
potential for prejudice.  Carr, 52 Wn. App. at 886.

For example, Lewellyn, Hardy, Carr, and Thamert all dealt with core issues.                                                                           
In Lewellyn and Hardy, cases upholding the admission of opinion evidence,                                                                             
the witnesses had strong factual bases supporting their opinions.  In                                                                                 
Lewellyn, the opinion of the driver's sobriety was based upon the arresting                                                                           
officers' observations of erratic driving, the smell of intoxicants,                                                                                  
slurred speech, and the defendant's lack of dexterity and inability to                                                                                
perform field sobriety tests.  78 Wn. App. at 792.  In Hardy, the witness,                                                                            
who identified the defendant from a videotape, had known the defendant for                                                                            
a number of years.  76 Wn. App. at 191. 

Conversely, Carr and Thamert both involved opinion evidence about the                                                                                 
defendants' states of mind and, in both cases, the reviewing court held the                                                                           
opinion testimony not admissible.  In Carr, the witness observed that the                                                                             
person at issue was confused as to the transaction and that his mental                                                                                
capacity had diminished.  52 Wn. App. at 886.  But the Carr court noted                                                                               
that there was a rational alternative explanation - the defendant simply                                                                              
might have changed his mind about the lease.  52 Wn. App. at 886.  And in                                                                             
Thamert, the jail nurse did not know if the defendant was on drugs at the                                                                             
time of the crime.  45 Wn. App. at 149.  

Here, Farr-Lenzini's state of mind was a core issue because the crime of                                                                              
attempting to elude has an element of willfulness.  RCW 46.61.024.  And the                                                                           
trooper's opinion spoke directly to that issue:  "the person driving that                                                                             
vehicle was attempting to get away from me and knew I was back there and                                                                              
{was} refusing to stop." 

The factual basis supporting this opinion was the trooper's observation of                                                                            
Farr Lenzini (1) hitting the brakes as she entered the 72nd Avenue - 179th                                                                            
Street intersection and as she went through the 179th Street - 50th Avenue                                                                            
stop sign; (2) accelerating "extremely hard" as she came out of her turn;                                                                             
and (3) swiveling her head rapidly side to side three times as she checked                                                                            
the intersection of 50th Avenue and Salmon Street.  These limited facts                                                                               
provide slim support for the trooper's opinion as to what the driver was                                                                              
thinking during the high speed, four and a half minute pursuit.  She simply                                                                           
may have been so absorbed in driving her high performance car on a quiet,                                                                             
dry Sunday morning that she was oblivious to her speed and to any vehicles                                                                            
following behind her.  As the cadet trooper stated at pretrial, Farr-                                                                                 
Lenzini was a "good" "aggressive" driver.  And uncontroverted expert                                                                                  
testimony indicated that the car's interior noise probably blotted out the                                                                            
patrol car's siren.   

The State also argues that the trooper's testimony was not an opinion of                                                                              
Farr-Lenzini's state of mind, but was merely an "impression" of her                                                                                   
behavior.  But this is inconsistent with the words used in the question and                                                                           
answer.  The prosecutor asked for an "opinion."  The trooper responded that                                                                           
the driver "knew I was back there and {was} refusing to stop."  Further, a                                                                            
police officer's impression of a defendant's conduct can constitute an                                                                                
improper opinion as to the defendant's guilt or innocence.  See State v.                                                                              
Sargent, 40 Wn. App. 340, 698 P.2d 598 (1985).  Here, the opinion or                                                                                  
impression addressed the major contested issue at trial, whether Farr-                                                                                
Lenzini was willfully eluding the trooper.       

The State, citing Madison, 53 Wn. App. 754, further suggests that the                                                                                 
trooper did not give an opinion as to Farr-Lenzinni's state of mind.  It                                                                              
contends that he merely testified that Farr-Lenzini's driving behavior was                                                                            
typical of someone eluding the police. 

Madison is distinguishable.  The expert in Madison described the                                                                                      
characteristic behavior of a sexual abuse victim, 53 Wn. App. at 760,                                                                                 
behavior less likely to be within the common knowledge of jurors than the                                                                             
illegal driving behavior at issue here.  Further, the trooper here did not                                                                            
discuss common characteristics.  He only described the defendant's acts and                                                                           
then interpreted them.     

Because the trooper testified to Farr-Lenzini's guilt without providing an                                                                            
adequate factual basis, we conclude that the admission of this evidence was                                                                           
error.  The State argues that if this was error, it was harmless.                                                                                     

	We use two tests to determine whether constitutional error is harmless:                                                                               
	the "contribution test" and the "overwhelming evidence test."  See State v.                                                                           
	Johnson, 100 Wn.2d 607, 621, 674 P.2d 145 (1983), overruled on other                                                                                  
	grounds in State v. Bergeron, 105 Wn.2d 1, 4, 711 P.2d 1000 (1985).  Under                                                                            
	the contribution test, error is harmless if it can be said beyond a                                                                                   
	reasonable doubt that it did not contribute to the verdict.  Johnson, 100                                                                             
	Wn.2d at 621.  Under the overwhelming evidence test, constitutional error                                                                             
	is harmless if it can be said beyond a reasonable doubt that the untainted                                                                            
	evidence necessarily leads to a finding of guilt.  Johnson, 100 Wn.2d at                                                                              

The error here was not harmless under either test.  Because the trooper's                                                                             
testimony addressed the critical core issue as well as Farr-Lenzini's                                                                                 
credibility, we cannot say without a reasonable doubt that it did not                                                                                 
contribute to the verdict.  "Particularly where such an opinion is                                                                                    
expressed by a government official, such as a sheriff or a police officer,                                                                            
the opinion may influence the factfinder and thereby deny the defendant of                                                                            
a fair and impartial trial."  State v. Carlin, 40 Wn. App. 698, 703, 700                                                                              
P.2d 323 (1985); State v. Haga, 8 Wn. App. 481, 492, 507 P.2d 159 (1973).                                                                             
And the untainted evidence was not so overwhelming as to necessarily lead                                                                             
to a guilty verdict on the charge of attempting to elude.  The evidence of                                                                            
Farr-Lenzini's state of  mind rested almost entirely upon the trooper's                                                                               
limited observations.4  Contrary evidence showed that Farr-Lenzini stopped                                                                            
for other stop signs, reduced her speed once she turned onto 50th Avenue,                                                                             
and could not hear the trooper's siren.  Consequently, we find that the                                                                               
error was not harmless.  Although we reverse on the basis of improper                                                                                 
opinion testimony, we discuss the following issues that may appear again at                                                                           

II.  Negligent Driving  

Farr-Lenzini challenges the trial court refusal to give her negligent                                                                                 
driving instruction.  The trial court concluded that negligent driving in                                                                             
the second degree is not a lesser included offense of reckless driving.                                                                               
A defendant is entitled to an instruction on the elements of a lesser                                                                                 
included offense when (1) each of the elements of the lesser offense is a                                                                             
necessary element of the charged offense, and (2) the evidence supports an                                                                            
inference that the lesser crime was committed.  State v. Aumick, 126 Wn.2d                                                                            
422, 426, 894 P.2d 1325 (1995).  At issue here is the first prong,                                                                                    
specifically whether second degree negligent driving, which the Legislature                                                                           
recategorized as a driving infraction, not a crime, can be a lesser offense                                                                           
to a crime.  We conclude that it cannot.  

We interpret statutes to ascertain and carry out the intent of the                                                                                    
Legislature.  State v. Riles, 135 Wn.2d 326, 340, 957 P.2d 655 (1998);                                                                                
Washington Pub. Employees Assoc. v. Washington Personnel Resources Bd., 91                                                                            
Wn. App. 640, 652, 959 P.2d 143 (1998).  We read related statutes in                                                                                  
relation with each other to harmonize and give effect to each provision.                                                                              
Fray v. Spokane County, 134 Wn.2d 637, 649, 952 P.2d 601 (1998).  Absent                                                                              
ambiguity, we derive a statute's meaning from the wording of the statute                                                                              
itself without resorting to judicial construction or interpretation.  Fray,                                                                           
134 Wn.2d at 649.  

A former statute defined negligent driving as a misdemeanor and as a lesser                                                                           
included offense of reckless driving.  Former RCW 46.61.525, Laws of 1979,                                                                            
1st Ex. Sess., ch. 136, sec. 86.5  But in 1996, the Legislature amended the                                                                           
statute by:  (1) removing the provision describing negligent driving as a                                                                             
lesser included offense of reckless driving; (2) dividing negligent driving                                                                           
into two offenses - negligent driving in the first degree and negligent                                                                               
driving in the second degree; and (3) downgrading negligent driving in the                                                                            
second degree to a traffic infraction.   Laws of 1996, ch. 307, sec. 1.                                                                               
And a year later, the Legislature deleted first degree negligent driving                                                                              
from RCW 46.61.525 and inserted it under RCW 46.61.5249.  Laws of 1997, ch.                                                                           
66, sec.sec. 4, 5.  Thus, RCW 46.61.525 now relates only to negligent                                                                                 
driving in the second degree, a traffic infraction subject to a $250 fine.                                                                            
RCW 46.63 governs the disposition of traffic infractions.  The purpose                                                                                
behind the enactment of RCW 46.63 was to decriminalize certain traffic                                                                                
offenses "to promote the public safety and welfare on public highways and                                                                             
to facilitate the implementation of a uniform and expeditious system for                                                                              
the disposition of traffic infractions."  RCW 46.63.010.   

A person cited for an infraction can respond in a number of ways, such as                                                                             
by paying a penalty or requesting a contested hearing.  RCW 46.63.070.                                                                                
There is no right to a jury at a contested traffic infraction hearing.  RCW                                                                           
46.63.090(1).  And the State's burden of proof is only a preponderance of                                                                             
the evidence.  RCW 46.63.090(3).  Thus, the Legislature clearly removed                                                                               
this offense from the arena of criminal litigation and procedure.  To                                                                                 
instruct the jury to consider it as a lesser included offense of the                                                                                  
criminal offense of reckless driving would be contrary to this clear                                                                                  
legislative intent.      

We note that Oregon courts, addressing very similar statutes, have reached                                                                            
the same result.  See State v. Darlin, 122 Or. App. 172, 857 P.2d 859                                                                                 
(1993); State v. Mink, 30 Or. App. 339, 567 P.2d 1033 (1977).  The Oregon                                                                             
statute (ORS) also provides for nonjury hearings and proof by a                                                                                       
preponderance of the evidence.  ORS 153.575.  Our Oregon colleagues                                                                                   
reasoned that because of the different procedures and standards of proof,                                                                             
it was "unworkable" to consider a traffic infraction as a lesser-included                                                                             
offense of a traffic crime.  Darlin, 857 P.2d at 863; Mink, 567 P.2d at                                                                               

For the same reasons as relied upon by the courts in Darlin and Mink, we                                                                              
hold that the trial court cannot instruct the jury that negligent driving                                                                             
in the second degree is a lesser included offense of reckless driving.6                                                                               
Consequently, the trial court did not err in rejecting the proposed                                                                                   
negligent driving instruction. 

III.  Inference Instruction 

Farr-Lenzini argues that instruction 11 allowed the jury to find                                                                                      
recklessness solely from proof of excess speed and that this denied her                                                                               
constitutional due process.  The State contends that there was sufficient                                                                             
evidence other than speed to allow the jury to find Farr-Lenzini guilty                                                                               
without relying solely upon the inference instruction. 

Instruction 11 states: 

	A person who drives in excess of the maximum lawful speed at the point of                                                                             
	operation may be inferred to have driven in a reckless manner.                                                                                        
	This inference is not binding upon you, and it is for you to determine what                                                                           
	weight, if any, such inference is to be given.                                                                                                        
A permissive inference instruction is unconstitutional "unless it can be                                                                              
said with substantial assurance that the presumed fact is more likely than                                                                            
not to flow from the proved fact on which it is made to depend."  County                                                                              
Court of Ulster County v. Allen, 442 U.S. 140, 166 n.28, 99 S. Ct. 2213, 60                                                                           
L. Ed. 2d 777 (1979) (quoting Leary v. United States,  395 U.S. 6, 36, 89                                                                             
S. Ct. 1532, 23 L.Ed.2d 57 (1969)); State v. Randhawa, 133 Wn.2d 67, 75,                                                                              
941 P.2d 661 (1997).7  Washington case law directs us to assess the                                                                                   
constitutionality of an inference instruction in light of the particular                                                                              
facts of the case and the State's evidence supporting the inference.                                                                                  
Randhawa, 133 Wn.2d at 76; State v. Hanna, 123 Wn.2d 704, 712, 871 P.2d 135                                                                           

In examining whether the presumed fact or elemental fact, reckless driving,                                                                           
more likely than not flowed from the proven or foundational fact, speed, we                                                                           
consider the State's evidence of Farr-Lenzini's speed.  Randhawa, 133 Wn.2d                                                                           
at 77-78.  The State showed that the Probe exceeded the speed limit by up                                                                             
to thirty to forty miles per hour and may have momentarily traveled at                                                                                
twice the speed limit.  This is considerably faster than the ten to twenty                                                                            
miles per hour the Randhawa court found insufficient to support an                                                                                    
inference instruction.  133 Wn.2d at 77-78.  Further, the trooper testified                                                                           
that Farr-Lenzini was driving "erratically," she ran a four-way stop, and                                                                             
she had to cut across lanes to negotiate a corner.   

Given this evidence, one can say with "substantial assurance" that the                                                                                
presumed fact of Farr-Lenzini's reckless driving more likely than not                                                                                 
flowed from the proven fact of her speed.  Thus, it was not error to give                                                                             
the inference instruction.  But we caution the trial court to use                                                                                     
particular care in examining the evidence before giving an inference                                                                                  
instruction and to instruct the jury to consider all evidence in addition                                                                             
to any evidence directly supporting the inferred fact. 

IV.  Prosecutorial Misconduct 

Farr-Lenzini further argues that the State's Ted Bundy comments prejudiced                                                                            
the jury and denied her a fair trial.  Because the argument could reoccur                                                                             
on remand, we discuss it here.   

"Prosecutorial misconduct may deprive the defendant of a fair trial and                                                                               
only a fair trial is a constitutional trial."  State v. Davenport, 100                                                                                
Wn.2d 757, 762, 675 P.2d 1213 (1984).  If we find misconduct, we determine                                                                            
whether it prejudiced the jury thereby denying the defendant a fair trial                                                                             
guaranteed by the due process clause.  Davenport, 100 Wn.2d at 762.  We                                                                               
review allegedly improper arguments in the context of the total argument,                                                                             
the issues, the evidence, and the jury instructions.  State v. Russell, 125                                                                           
Wn.2d 24, 85, 882 P.2d 747 (1994).   

The State contends that defense counsel invited the Ted Bundy remarks by                                                                              
arguing that Farr-Lenzini did not fit the profile of a person who would                                                                               
elude the police.  Invited arguments are not grounds for reversal unless                                                                              
they are not a pertinent reply or are so prejudicial as to render a                                                                                   
curative instruction ineffective.  Russell, 125 Wn.2d at 86.  Viewing the                                                                             
Ted Bundy statement in context, we find no prejudice.                                                                                                 

Before closing argument, the trial court advised the jury that the                                                                                    
attorneys' arguments are not evidence and to "{d}isregard any remark,                                                                                 
statement or argument that is not supported by the evidence or the law as                                                                             
stated by the court."  Afterward, defense counsel argued:                                                                                             
I simply submit to you that a 36-year-old woman doesn't decide - moment -                                                                             
on an instant's notice that she's going to risk everything that she's                                                                                 
accomplished up to that point and just take off from the police.  It's just                                                                           
not going to happen.  

She doesn't fit the profile.                                                                                                                          
In rebuttal the State argued,  "I mean the State is not saying Mrs. Lenzini                                                                           
is a bad person."  And then the State added the Ted Bundy analogy.                                                                                    
Farr-Lenzini objected, to which the State replied: 

	Basically, what we're saying here is the State is not saying this person                                                                              
	fits a typical profile.  What we're saying is based on the evidence on                                                                                
	September 8, the defendant made a bad judgment call.  She made a mistake                                                                              
	and she changed her driving pattern and she drove recklessly and she tried                                                                            
	to widen the gap.  She was scared and she ran.  And that's all we're                                                                                  
	saying.  We're not saying she's a bad person.                                                                                                         
Although a curative instruction would have been desirable, the court had                                                                              
already instructed the jury that argument is not evidence and to disregard                                                                            
statements not supported by evidence.  "Juries are presumed to heed the                                                                               
court's instructions."  Hanna, 123 Wn.2d at 711; State v. Lord, 117 Wn.2d                                                                             
829, 861, 822 P.2d 177 (1991).  Further, the jury was aware that Farr-                                                                                
Lenzini was not accused of a violent offense.  Thus, viewed in context, a                                                                             
reasonable jury would see the Ted Bundy remark as a rhetorical overreaction                                                                           
to a defense argument.   Consequently, the argument did not deny Farr-                                                                                
Lenzini a fair trial.  

Having found that the trooper's opinion testimony constituted reversible                                                                              
error, we need not discuss Farr-Lenzini's remaining claims of insufficient                                                                            
evidence and cumulative error.  

Accordingly, we reverse and remand.                                                                                                                   
                                                      Seinfeld, J.                                                                                    
We concur:                                                                                                                                            
Morgan, J.                                                                                                                                            
Houghton, C.J.                                                                                                                                        
1 Hard braking could result in a loss of braking power known as "brake fade." Dunlop Co., Ltd. v. Kelsey-Hayes Co., 484 F.2d 407, 410 (1973). 2 The trooper saw one pedestrian near the corner of SR 503 and 199th Street, before the trooper had activated his lights and siren, but the pedestrian was not in danger. 3 ER 702 states: "If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact at issue, a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education, may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise." 4 The State's brief mischaracterizes the evidence of Farr-Lenzini's driving. It states that both troopers testified that the Probe "slid sideways due to the speed that she took the corner." But the trooper cadet did not mention the car sliding sideways, and the trooper merely testified that it "almost, sort of, slides to the right a little bit." 5 Division One of this court recently held that former RCW 46.61.525 is a lesser included offense of vehicular assault. State v. Gostol, Wn. App. , 965 P.2d 1121, 1123 (1998). 6 We do not discuss whether the trial court can determine from the bench whether Farr-Lenzini has committed negligent driving in the second degree. Such a procedure is permissible in Oregon. Darlin, 857 P.2d at 863; Mink, 567 P.2d at 1036. 7 The standard of proof required for an inference instruction is still somewhat unsettled in Washington. "When an inference is only part of the prosecution's proof supporting an element of the crime, due process requires the presumed fact to flow 'more likely than not' from proof of the basic fact." State v. Hanna, 123 Wn.2d 704, 710, 871 P.2d 135 (1994) (citing Ulster County, 442 U.S. at 165); accord Randhawa, 133 Wn.2d at 76. Ulster County also suggests that when the inference is the prosecution's "sole and sufficient" proof supporting an element of a crime, a reasonable doubt standard applies to show that the presumed fact flows from the basic fact. 442 U.S. at 167; State v. Brunson, 128 Wn.2d 98, 107, 905 P.2d 346 (1995); State v. Delmarter, 68 Wn. App. 770, 784-85, 845 P.2d 1340 (1993). But the Washington State Supreme Court has yet to apply the reasonable doubt standard to inference instructions. See Brunson, 128 Wn.2d at 109; Hanna, 123 Wn.2d at 711; but see Delmarter, 68 Wn. App. at 784-85. 8 Despite the inability of a reviewing court to know what evidence a jury relied upon in reaching a verdict, the rule set forth in Hanna and its progeny emphasizes the sufficiency of the evidence supporting the inference rather than focusing on the language of the instructions and the effect they may have had on the jury. See Hanna, 123 Wn.2d at 719 (Johnson, J. dissenting). Randhawa apparently recognized this problem when it noted that an inference instruction poses a very real danger of inviting the jury to infer reckless driving solely on the basis of speed. 133 Wn.2d at 77- 78. The Ninth Circuit rejected this reliance upon speed alone, after stating: "The jury was told, in effect, that it could ignore all the other evidence, consider only the evidence of Schwendeman's speed, and if it found Schwendeman was exceeding the speed limit, that was enough to convict him - not of speeding, but of reckless driving." Schwendeman v. Wallenstein, 971 F.2d 313, 316 (9th Cir. 1992); see also Hanna v. Riveland, 87 F.3d 1034 (9th Cir. 1996).